The impacts of renewable energy and institutional quality in environmental sustainability in the context of the sustainable development goals: A novel approach with the inverted load capacity factor

Dam M. M., IŞIK C., Ongan S.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.42, pp.95394-95409, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 42
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-29020-8
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.95394-95409
  • Keywords: EKC hypothesis, Environmental sustainability, Institutional quality, Inverted load capacity factor, Renewable energy, SDGs
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


It is crucial to fulfill sustainable development goals in combating environmental pollution. Recently, there has been a growing literature on environmental pollution; however, while many proxies represent environmental pollution, few proxies represent environmental sustainability. In this paper, we examine the effects of institutional quality (SDG-16), economic growth (SDG-8), and renewable energy (SDG-7) on the inverted load capacity factor (SDG-13) in OECD countries from 1999 to 2018. The objective is to ensure environmental sustainability within the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) framework. In this respect, the study differs from the existing literature by approaching the sustainable environment literature from a broader perspective. Long-term empirical estimates from the PMG-ARDL technique have shown that institutional quality, reel income, and population increase the inverted load capacity factor, that is, decrease environmental sustainability. However, on the contrary, renewable energy decreases the inverted load capacity factor. Therefore, renewable energy consumption helps reach SDG-7 and SDG-13 in OECD countries. In addition, it is found that economic growth is significant both in the long run and in the short run, and the impact of economic growth on the environment is greater in the short run than in the long run. This result supports the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for OECD countries. The panel causality test results find a bidirectional causality relationship from renewable energy and population to inverted load capacity factor and a unidirectional causality relationship from institutional quality to inverted load capacity factor. This study argues that policymakers should concentrate on deploying environmentally friendly technology to slow down environmental degradation, increase the usage of renewable energy sources, and promote sustainable development in line with the SDGs.