Ottoman-European Trade Relations in the 16th Century: A Look at 'Yusufca Hoard' Example

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BELLETEN, vol.86, no.305, pp.119-176, 2022 (AHCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 86 Issue: 305
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.37879/belleten.2022.119
  • Journal Name: BELLETEN
  • Journal Indexes: Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI), Scopus, Periodicals Index Online, L'Année philologique, American History and Life, Historical Abstracts, Index Islamicus, Linguistic Bibliography, MLA - Modern Language Association Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.119-176
  • Keywords: Coin Hoard, Kandira, Trade, Sultani, Ducat, Monetary Circulation
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


The subject of this article is the hoard found in Yusufca Village of Kandira District of Kocaeli and named as "Yusufca Hoard". There are 154 gold and 2 silver coins in the hoard. Of the gold coins, 98 are Ottoman and the other 56 are European coins. European coins and the coins of the Ottoman sultans are contemporary. The hoard shows an accumulation of approximately 160 years consisting of coins dated roughly between 1462-1622. The aim of this study is to discuss the circulation of money through the commercial activities / relations of the empires / states / principalities that existed in the aforementioned century in the light of hoard dating back to the 16th century. For this reason, it was aimed to deal with the historical, regional and mint operations of the coins in the hoard by focusing on the economy, market, trade, merchants and money issues in the 16th century Ottoman world. In the article, based on the example of the Yusufca Hoard consisting of 154 gold and 2 silver Ottoman and European coins dating to the 16th century, the place/ circulation of gold coins in long-distance trade in the 16th century, the owner of the accumulation and the profession are discussed. The states represented by the foreign currencies in the treasury, their gold coins and mints were mentioned, the relations between these states and the Ottoman Empire and the coins of these two states were discussed, The Yusufca Hoard has been evaluated separately by comparing it to contemporary similar hoard samples within and outside of Anatolia. Precious coins buried in the ground as part of larger coins in cities or the countryside; the location of the coins, how they could be used, the production of coins and the level of people earning money, how and by whom the gold coins were used, the hoard owner and accumulation were discussed.