POLYMERS, vol.11, no.10, 2019 (SCI-Expanded)
Clarithromycin (CLR) is a member of the macrolide antibiotic group. CLR has low systemic oral bioavailability and is a drug of class II of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System. In many studies, using nanoparticles (NPs) as a drug delivery system has been shown to increase the effectiveness and bioavailability of active drug substances. This study describes the development and evaluation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs and chitosan (CS)-coated PLGA NPs for oral delivery of CLR. NPs were obtained by nanoprecipitation technique and characterized in detail, and the effect of three molecular weights (M-w1: 7.000-17.000, M-w2: 38.000-54.000, M-w3: 50.000-190.000) of PLGA and CS coating on particle size (PS), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency (EE%), and release properties etc. were elucidated. Gastrointestinal stability and cryoprotectant effect tests were performed on the NPs. The PS of the prepared NPs were in the range of 178 to 578 nm and they were affected by the M-w and CS coating. In surface-modified formulations with CS, the ZP of the NPs increased significantly to positive values. EE% varied from 62% to 85%, depending upon the M-w and CS coating. In vitro release studies of CLR-loaded NPs showed an extended release up to 144 h. Peppas-Sahlin and Weibull kinetic model was found to fit best for CLR release from NPs. By the broth microdilution test method, the antibacterial activity of the formulations was determined on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 1911), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603). The structures of the formulations were clarified by thermal (DSC), FT-IR, and H-1-NMR analysis. The results showed that PS, ZP, EE%, and dissolution rates of NPs were directly related to the M-w of PLGA and CS coating.