Washback effect of Turkish foreign language proficiency exam YDS: A scale development study

Creative Commons License


Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, vol.15, no.4, pp.1252-1268, 2019 (Scopus) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 15 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.17263/jlls.668404
  • Journal Name: Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.1252-1268
  • Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis, Exploratory factor analysis, Foreign language testing, High stake tests, Proficiency tests, Test impact, Washback effect, YDS
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


© 2019 JLLS and the Authors - Published by JLLS.Investigating the possible washback effect of Foreign Language Proficiency Exam called YDS could provide valuable data regarding how test-takers feel about taking this exam. This study aims to design a scale and collect data regarding the possible washback effect of YDS. In the initial phase, with the help of 6 academicians from ELT and testing disciplines, a preliminary draft of an attitude scale was developed. Secondly, the scale was piloted in order to carry out exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Thirdly, the newly developed scale’s psychometric qualities (validity and reliability) were measured. After it was confirmed that the scale which had 4 factors and 13 items was a valid and reliable tool, the data including the views of Turkish academicians were gathered focusing on the washback effect of the YDS via this scale in the final phase. The overall data of this study were collected from 84 state universities with the contribution of 2683 academicians from different disciplines. The findings revealed that YDS has negative backwash effect on Turkish academicians in terms of certain subcategories including test strategy, motivation, perception and test taker’s psychology.