Coumarins and essential oils are the major components of the Apiaceae family and the Zosima genus. The present study reports anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of extracts and essential oils from aerial parts, roots, flowers, fruits and coumarinsbergapten (1); imperatorin (2), pimpinellin (3) and umbelliferone (4)isolated of the roots from Zosima absinthifolia. The investigation by light and scanning electron microscopy of the structures of secretory canals found different chemical compositions in the various types of secretory canals which present in the aerial parts, fruits and flowers. The canals, present in the aerial parts, are characterized by terpene hydrocarbons, while the secretory canals of roots, flowers and fruits include esters. Novel data of a comparative study on essential oils constituents of aerial parts, roots, flowers and fruits of Z. absinthfolia has been presented. The roots and fruits extract showed a high content of total phenolics and antioxidant activity. The GC-FID and GC-MS analysis revealed that the main components of the aerial parts, roots, flowers and fruits extracts were octanol (8.8%), octyl octanoate (7.6%), octyl acetate (7.3%); trans-pinocarvyl acetate (26.7%), -pinene (8.9%); octyl acetate (19.9%), trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (4.6%); octyl acetate (81.6%), and (Z)-4-octenyl acetate (5.1%). The dichloromethane fraction of fruit and flower essential oil was characterized by the highest phenolics level and antioxidant activity. The dichloromethane fraction of fruit had the best inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase enzyme (82.27 +/- 1.97%) which was higher then acetylcholinesterase inhibition (61.09 +/- 4.46%) of umbelliferone. This study shows that the flowers and fruit of Z. absinthifolia can be a new potential resource of natural antioxidant and anticholinesterase compounds.