This study presents the status of and prospects for the current state of small hydropower technologies used to produce electricity and assesses their future prospects. The hydropower currently provides about 20% of the world's electricity supply and more than 40% of the electricity used in developing countries. Norway produces more than 99% of its electricity with hydropower. The hydropower is the leading source of renewable energy, providing more than 97% of all electricity generated by renewable sources. The chief advantage of hydro systems is elimination of the cost of fuel. Hydropower on a small-scale is in most cases "run-of-river," with no dam or water storage, and is one of the most cost-effective and environmentally benign energy technologies to be considered both for rural electrification in less developed countries and further hydro developments in Europe.