2D MATERIALS, vol.4, no.3, 2017 (SCI-Expanded)
Optical and electronic properties of black phosphorus strongly depend on the number of layers and type of stacking. Using first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, we investigate the electronic properties of bilayer black phosphorus with an interlayer twist angle of 90 degrees. These calculations are complemented with a simple (k) over right arrow . (p) over right arrow model which is able to capture most of the low energy features and is valid for arbitrary twist angles. The electronic spectrum of 90 degrees twisted bilayer black phosphorus is found to be x-y isotropic in contrast to the monolayer. However x-y anisotropy, and a partial return to monolayer-like behavior, particularly in the valence band, can be induced by an external out-of-plane electric field. Moreover, the preferred hole effective mass can be rotated by 90 degrees simply by changing the direction of the applied electric field. In particular, a +0.4 (-0.4) V angstrom(1) out-of-plane electric field results in a similar to 60% increase in the hole effective mass along the y (x) axis and enhances the m(y)*/m(x)* (m(x)*/m(y)*) ratio as much as by a factor of 40. Our DFT and (k) over right arrow . (p) over right arrow simulations clearly indicate that the twist angle in combination with an appropriate gate voltage is a novel way to tune the electronic and optical properties of bilayer phosphorus and it gives us a new degree of freedom to engineer the properties of black phosphorus based devices.