Understanding the relationship between personality traits and e-learning autonomy can help to provide tailored e-learning environments and student support. Although the related literature is rich regarding learner autonomy and personality traits, there is a dearth of research exploring the predictive relationship. This research investigates the relationship between personality traits and e-learning autonomy of distance education students. Data was collected using the Big 5 Personality Traits and e-Learning Autonomy scales from 3435 distance education students of Anadolu University's Open Education Faculty. Results show that male students have more e-learning autonomy than female students, while female students have higher scores of personality traits except for agreeableness. The e-learning autonomy of distance education students had positive correlations with four personality traits except for neuroticism. Furthermore, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness were significant predictors of e-learning autonomy behaviors of distance education students.