Effect of animated and interactive video variations on learners' motivation in distance Education

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EDUCATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES, vol.27, no.3, pp.3247-3276, 2022 (SSCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 27 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10639-021-10735-5
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Communication Abstracts, EBSCO Education Source, Educational research abstracts (ERA), ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.3247-3276
  • Keywords: Distance learning, Motivation, Cognitive load, Animation, Interactive video, COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY, ENGAGEMENT, STUDENTS, TURKISH, PERFORMANCE, ATTENTION, FRAMEWORK, VALIDITY, IMPACT, SCALE
  • Anadolu University Affiliated: Yes


One of the objectives of this research is to develop and validate the Instructional Material Motivation Scale for Single-Use (IMMS-SU) instrument in the Turkish context. The IMMS-SU was developed and validated in a two-phased process on a sample of 1654 students. The Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that IMMS-SU included 14 items (chi 2 = 332.59; sd = 74; p < 0.001), the fitness indices were found to be RMSEA = .077; SRMR = .040; AGFI = .88; NFI = .95; CFI = .96; and GFI = .92. The Cronbach's Alpha coefficients regarding the whole scale was calculated as alpha = 0.95. Thereafter, in the second study, the animated and interactive video materials used in distance education were scrutinized in the context of openness to different materials, time spent viewing, motivation, and cognitive load. A total of 933 students participated who had a distance education experience. In order to collect data, the extraneous cognitive load instrument (Kalyuga et al., Human Factors, 40(1), 1-17, Kalyuga, S., Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1998). Levels of expertise and instructional design. Human Factors, 40(1), 1-17. 10.1518/001872098779480587), IMMS-SU, and questionnaire items were used. According to the findings, it was determined that animation and interactive video materials did not cause a higher level of cognitive load on the participants, and both groups had higher material motivation. In addition, it was revealed that interactive video materials caused a higher extraneous cognitive load in participants than animation group. It was figured out that as the openness levels of the participants watching the animation and interactive materials decreased, their cognitive load levels increased. In the light of the results, some suggestions have been recommended for further research.