EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES-THEORY & PRACTICE, vol.17, no.3, pp.923-943, 2017 (SSCI)
Children's ever-increasing and autonomous engagement with the internet exposes them to online risks, especially when parental supervision is limited. Furthermore, media coverage highlighting negative online experiences increases adults' risk perceptions, which in turn jeopardize children's sustainable and beneficial engagement with the internet. This picture suggests stakeholders' perceived risks regarding children's internet safety is a significant factor and research topic. The aim of the current study is to report on the validity and reliability studies of the Perceived Online Risks Scale for Pre-service Teachers. Development studies began with a literature review of online risks frameworks and perceived risk measurement forms. Findings of the literature review were evaluated through an expert panel with scholars and key stakeholders related to children's internet safety, which supported the content validity. Face validity was tested through expert reviews and pilot examinations. An initial form was prepared and gradually reviewed through consultations with teachers, teacher educators, and scholars. Final evaluation of face validity was performed with 40 pre-service primary school teachers. Construct validity of the scale was tested through factor analyses. Reliability of the form was investigated with internal consistency coefficient and test-retest stability methods. Analyses resulted in a 20-item form with six factors and findings indicate that the form is a valid and reliable instrument.