ONLINE LEARNING, vol.25, no.4, pp.170-186, 2021 (ESCI)
Gamification, which is defined as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts, is put forward as a solution to low motivation and is suggested for the creation of a sustainable learning ecology in open and distance learning (ODL). The overall purpose of the present study was to examine the distribution of the Hexad gamification user types and the correlations of gamification experience, game mode, and gender with the user types' scores within the context of an ODL system. The researchers adapted quantitative cross-sectional survey design to seek answers in this study. The Hexad user types of distance learners were determined based on the online "Gamification User Types Hexad Scale." Findings revealed that the most common user types in the ODL environment were Philanthropists, Achievers, and Free Spirits, followed by Socializers and Players with a lower mean, while the least common user type was Disruptors. Women tended to score higher than men on the Disruptor user type. Achievers, Socializers, Philanthropists, and Players preferred multiplayer game modes, while the game mode had little influence on Free Spirits and Disruptors. Regarding the gamification experience, Players and Free Spirits seemed to have more experience of gamified applications. This study provides insights to learning designers in developing gamified ODL systems to engage the different Hexad user types.